Dig 查询A记录/MX/TXT

1. 常见的DNS记录类型

1.1 A记录(默认)

$ dig dhcp.cn

; <<>> DiG 9.10.6 <<>> dhcp.cn
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 30553
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 7

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;dhcp.cn.			IN	A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
dhcp.cn.		300	IN	A	159.75.190.197

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
dhcp.cn.		86400	IN	NS	ns4.dns.com.
dhcp.cn.		86400	IN	NS	ns3.dns.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns3.dns.com.		372	IN	A	119.167.180.139
ns3.dns.com.		372	IN	A	218.98.111.173
ns4.dns.com.		171364	IN	A	211.99.99.52
ns4.dns.com.		171364	IN	A	183.253.57.199
ns3.dns.com.		492	IN	AAAA	2404:da80::1:1a2
ns4.dns.com.		172715	IN	AAAA	240e:ff:9000:1100::1a2

;; Query time: 47 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Tue Feb 09 12:10:45 CST 2021
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 309
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1.2 MX(邮箱)

dig dhcp.cn mx

; <<>> DiG 9.10.6 <<>> dhcp.cn mx
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 23243
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 8

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;dhcp.cn.			IN	MX

;; ANSWER SECTION:
dhcp.cn.		600	IN	MX	5 mxbiz1.qq.com.
dhcp.cn.		600	IN	MX	10 mxbiz2.qq.com.

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
dhcp.cn.		86400	IN	NS	ns4.dns.com.
dhcp.cn.		86400	IN	NS	ns3.dns.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
mxbiz2.qq.com.		592	IN	A	183.57.48.34
ns3.dns.com.		167756	IN	A	119.167.180.139
ns3.dns.com.		167756	IN	A	218.98.111.173
ns4.dns.com.		171754	IN	A	183.253.57.199
ns4.dns.com.		171754	IN	A	211.99.99.52
ns3.dns.com.		172238	IN	AAAA	2404:da80::1:1a2
ns4.dns.com.		172665	IN	AAAA	240e:ff:9000:1100::1a2

;; Query time: 31 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Tue Feb 09 12:10:16 CST 2021
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 387
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查询出 MX 的记录为 ;; ANSWER SECTION: dhcp.cn. 600 IN MX 5 mxbiz1.qq.com. dhcp.cn. 600 IN MX 10 mxbiz2.qq.com.

当然可以用更简短的方式查询

$ dig +nocmd dhcp.cn mx +noall +answer
dhcp.cn.		600	IN	MX	5 mxbiz1.qq.com.
dhcp.cn.		600	IN	MX	10 mxbiz2.qq.com.
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1.3 TXT

验证域名所有权会经常使用 DNS 解析 TXT记录的方式,比如申请 SSL 证书或 Google、百度站长认证时;

$ dig +nocmd dhcp.cn txt +noall +answer
dhcp.cn.		600	IN	TXT	"google-site-verification=yVvYi9IY_0g9xKaASfQbS2pE-BJPQiCQyKIv8QrcoDU"
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1.4 CNAME(映射)

$ dig cloud.tencent.com CNAME

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-61.el7_5.1 <<>> cloud.tencent.com CNAME
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 3408
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;cloud.tencent.com.             IN      CNAME

;; ANSWER SECTION:
cloud.tencent.com.      2574    IN      CNAME   cloud.tencent-cloud.com.

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 183.60.83.19#53(183.60.83.19)
;; WHEN: Fri Jul 26 11:18:27 CST 2019
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 80
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2. 其他查询

2.1 反向查询

通过 IP 查询域名,一般会把邮件服务器的IP转成域名,减少被当成垃圾邮件的可能性;

$ dig -x 114.114.114.114 +short
public1.114dns.com.
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2.2 跟踪DNS完整解析过程

$ dig  +trace dhcp.cn A

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-74.el7_6.1 <<>> +trace dhcp.cn A
;; global options: +cmd
.                       220     IN      NS      b.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      c.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      d.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      e.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      f.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      g.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      h.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      i.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      j.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      k.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      l.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      m.root-servers.net.
.                       220     IN      NS      a.root-servers.net.
;; Received 228 bytes from 183.60.83.19#53(183.60.83.19) in 8 ms

cn.                     172800  IN      NS      a.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      b.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      c.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      d.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      e.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      f.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      g.dns.cn.
cn.                     172800  IN      NS      ns.cernet.net.
cn.                     86400   IN      DS      57724 8 2 5D0423633EB24A499BE78AA22D1C0C9BA36218FF49FD95A4CDF1A4AD 97C67044
cn.                     86400   IN      RRSIG   DS 8 1 86400 20210221220000 20210208210000 42351 . GwTWf8uiWRrKdOv1c/hPIjoSQB9xuFML/YoBreSgjhSdSXdR9b9IqFHl jEz4UCdmzkMjPGCeW8jGKWN2KNkokEDIR1ncwGeDzAOS/E36QHVKUFup XuxEQ0lLzTfoiuzFE+DI0JJKgmZ9TqMoZhf7R81eDAZjNLD+o88HQrPZ uX8h3RV9GswD89xX9ATaQ/eScOznL0A+r5OiXiRr58rExjIGnl1xXYot lt3cnk29wyKyYhV4BKOshqzvJ9fFXWxnLtGh6hfJ4u2VK4eIudLDyP86 kU+p3feVgvLeKfAUEQTgnGB6nXyzKwjMvL58Bc6CjFRyxC+rVx1cmZ7k GJSzdA==
;; Received 698 bytes from 192.58.128.30#53(j.root-servers.net) in 289 ms

dhcp.cn.                86400   IN      NS      ns4.dns.com.
dhcp.cn.                86400   IN      NS      ns3.dns.com.
3QDAQA092EE5BELP64A74EBNB8J53D7E.cn. 21600 IN NSEC3 1 1 10 AEF123AB 3QLMP0QRNQ96G5AFGOPNB7U7IJ4MBP4B NS SOA RRSIG DNSKEY NSEC3PARAM
3QDAQA092EE5BELP64A74EBNB8J53D7E.cn. 21600 IN RRSIG NSEC3 8 2 21600 20210219232103 20210120223121 38388 cn. egUUHUBM1MRpZ6a3A50udRCPlvehcsFUYkqe9O8BdT9Gc4YJvOlN2oCZ zE0+QH+GAirPz1VYbi7svl6b0bqg6gYVuOQzSH50uJ8unztca6oXv+40 EGnLPJ4Xg9NSldwVoJUO6y3gNywq2M9idMogQtoIVgkHUlJytmbC5c3s /S4=
PMKLHTU44AB8KHG3RA0HGM2F32M9I89I.cn. 21600 IN NSEC3 1 1 10 AEF123AB PMT8A7297V9R4G5IGI7A1I74LVDQNHPS NS DS RRSIG
PMKLHTU44AB8KHG3RA0HGM2F32M9I89I.cn. 21600 IN RRSIG NSEC3 8 2 21600 20210220014744 20210121005312 38388 cn. g3Ixt94PwvzKSshMEQMF8cUkrDK+JvBdJztbMCxRw43F0vxG3fnuaIEN L9SwksSGQ+h/WtyBeAdKoZOUV+cd/FHaG3ggX4zMdHi7o5tLsDwHXwwv OtiGGOBiQUsDiAJgiNHkrHSXJPwW6eEXxP/eed4d8CQw8wtW+Rs+ynTu ppE=
;; Received 570 bytes from 203.119.29.1#53(e.dns.cn) in 208 ms

dhcp.cn.                600     IN      A       159.75.190.197
dhcp.cn.                86400   IN      NS      ns3.dns.com.
dhcp.cn.                86400   IN      NS      ns4.dns.com.
;; Received 102 bytes from 119.167.180.139#53(ns3.dns.com) in 35 ms
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reference

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